ResearchMethods/ReferencesAndCitations

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How to cite references.

Contents

References and Citations, APA 6th Edition

In-Text Citations, APA 6th Edition

Citation Placement, APA 6th

  • Option 1: Last names of author(s), date of publication, and page number(s) are placed in brackets at the end of the sentence. For example:
    • (Spitz & Hunter, 2005, p. 172).
  • Option 2: Citation integrated into the sentence with a signal phrase and narrative. For example:
    • Spitz and Hunter (2005) examined how some assumptions about Napster have gained currency while others have not (p. 172).

Citation Format, APA 6th

  • Rules for in-text citation change depending on the number/type of author(s).
One Author
  • One author: Cite the last name of the author in every in-text citation:
    • The study demonstrated how "APA style can be challenging for college students" (Bedford, 2010, p. 8).
    • Smith (2009) discovered that APA style is a challenging citation format for first-time learners (p. 199).
    • According to Smith, APA style is a challenging citation format for first-time learners (2009, p. 199).
Two Authors
  • Two authors: Combine both names, with "&" in brackets or "and" in the signal phrase:
    • Research conducted by Bedford and Smith (2008) suggests college students struggle when using APA style. This difficulty can be attributed to the fact that many students did not purchase a style manual or failed to ask their teacher or librarian for help (p. 199).
    • Research has suggested that college students struggle when using APA style because they do not acquire the necessary resources or seek additional support on-campus (Bedford & Smith, 2008, p. 199).
Three to Five Authors
  • Three to five authors: List all last names in signal phrase or brackets for the first in-text citation. If you cite the source again, use the first author's last name with "et al."
    • Contrary to popular belief, the evidence showed that Leif Eriksson was "the first European to set foot on North American soil, almost 500 years before Columbus" (Wilson, Kravitz, Thomson, & Petty, 2011, pp. 94-98).
    • Wilson et al. (2011) concluded that Leif Eriksson was "the first European to set foot on North American soil, almost 500 years before Columbus" (pp. 94-98).
Six of More Authors
  • Six or more authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. in the signal phrase or in brackets:
    • In a randomized control trial conducted on diabetic patients, Shaughnessy et al. (2007) found the medication to be effective in 72% of patients (p. 109).
    • Multiple studies have demonstrated that traumatic experiences in early childhood can increase the risk of addiction (Okoye et al., 2016, p. 84).
With an Organization
  • With an organization: Cite the full name of the group or organization. If it is lengthy, cite full name in the first citation and use an abbreviation for following citations:
    • The Canadian Medical Association (CMA) concluded there is no causal link between vaccinations and the increase in clinical diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders. Moreover, the CMA warned that such assumptions may lead to the return of childhood illnesses like the measles (2010, pp. 18-21).
    • According to Statistics Canada, "[s]ince the early 1990s, Canada has welcomed an average of almost 250,000 immigrants annually" (2016, para. 2).
With No Author
  • No author: First, check if there is a group or organization responsible for the content. If you cannot locate one, cite the entire or a shortened version of the title of the work:
    • Google was involved in anti-competitive practices ("Patent Trials," 2010, para. 3).
    • It was reported that Calgary's office vacancy rate in the downtown core is almost 25% ("Calgary Downtown Vacancy," 2016, para. 1).
Unpublished Interview
  • Unpublished interview, presentation, or personal communication: Cite IN-TEXT ONLY, no reference list entry is needed. Cite in-text as a personal communication; include initials and last name of the person(s) and the full date. A reference list entry is only needed if you read or listened to the interview/presentation in a print or electronically published source.
    • A registered nurse explained how "elderly patients with dementia may wander off the premises of nursing homes" (J. McGill, personal communication, October 12, 2015).
    • Plagiarism is a serious violation of academic honesty policies at Bow Valley College (L. Peters, personal communication, September 12, 2016).
Source inside a Source
  • A source inside a source: If you want to use a source quoted, paraphrased, or summarized in a source, cite or refer to original source(s) in-text only and cite the actual source you are using both in-text and in the reference list.
    • Option 1: Place original author(s) and year in the signal phrase or brackets and use the phrase “as cited in.” before the actual source:
      • Johnson (2008) argued that the Calgary stampede is rooted in conservative political ideologies (as cited in Smith, 2013, pp. 102-103).
    • Option 2: Include in-text citation(s) to the original source(s) in a quote:
      • An increasing amount of critical analysis and evidence have undermined "the notion that digital natives have a unique aptitude for digital technologies (Hargittai & Feldman, 2010; Jones & Czerniewicz, 2010; Hope, 2011)” (Holden et al., 2012, p. 18).
    • Option 3: Use a phrase such as “According to a research study” or “The research has demonstrated” to refer to the original source(s):
      • Multiple research studies have undermined "the notion that digital natives have a unique aptitude for digital technologies" (Holden et al., 2012, p. 18).
Original Text Quote from Source
  • "...several provincial governments are actively considering or adopting full-day kindergarten (FDK) programs. Such enthusiastic cross-Canada embrace of one specific policy instrument is counter-intuitive since FDK is more expensive to deliver than tax breaks of subsidizing parents' child care expenses" (White & Prentice, 2016, p. 27).
Paraphrase Re-Worded
  • Full-day kindergarten is a more expensive policy option for provinces in Canada than funding and tax credits for child care (White & Prentice, 2016, p. 27).
Quote Copied
  • White and Prentice stated that the "enthusiastic cross-Canada embrace of one specific policy instrument is counter-intuitive since [full-day kindergarten] is more expensive to deliver than tax breaks of subsidizing parents' child care expenses" (2016, p. 27).
  • White and Prentice (2016) stated that the "enthusiastic cross-Canada embrace of one specific policy instrument is counter-intuitive since [full-day kindergarten] is more expensive to deliver than tax breaks of subsidizing parents' child care expenses" (p. 27).
Multiple Citations Together
  • Separate the citations within the parentheses with semicolons.
    • (Bennett, 2015; Smith, 2014).

References, APA 6th Edition

APA style requires you to list all the sources you've used on the last page of an assignment. These are called references. A reference typically has four parts that answer these four questions:

  • Who created it?
  • When was it published?
  • What is it called?
  • Where can it be found?

The information for each part will depend on the format (e.g. print book, ebook, website etc.) of the source. A period and a space are placed between each part of a reference.

Document Formatting

  • Reference entries must be listed double-spaced with hanging indent.
  • Use Times New Roman and 12 point font throughout the assignment.
  • List reference entries in alphabetical order according to the first word of the reference (usually the last name of author as it appears on the publication).

Authors and Editors

  • List last name, comma, initial(s) of first name(s), and period(s):
    • Chelsey, N. S.
  • For more than one author, list with commas after initial(s) of first name and ampersand (&) before the last author:
    • Chelsey, N. S., Murray, F., & Laurence, A.
  • Use commas, periods, and proper spacing to separate names.
  • When listing editor(s) instead of author(s), put Ed. or Eds. in brackets after name(s), e.g.:
    • Callwood, A. (Ed.).
    • Kim, B., & Rogin, E. L. (Eds.).
  • For 8 or more author(s) or editor(s), list first six names, an ellipsis ( ... ), and the last name:
    • Jacobs, B. L., Baheti, L., Igwe, J., Uba, F. R., Ho, C. M., Larch, K., ... Sybil, S. N.
  • Exceptions:
    • If there is no individual person(s) listed as responsible for the work, use the group or organization responsible for the content:
      • Statistics Canada. Canadian Criminal Justice Association.
    • For audiovisual and non-textual sources, describe the individual's role in brackets after name(s):
      • Spielberg, S. (Director), & Kennedy, C. (Producer). Klimt, G. (Artist). Abbott, T. F. (Graphic designer).
    • If there is no individual person(s) listed AND you can identify no group or organization responsible for the work, move the title of the source to the author position:
      • Calgary downtown vacancy rate moving towards 25%. (2016, June 1).

Publication Date

  • Place year of publication in brackets after name of author(s):
    • Chelsey, N. S., Murray, F., & Laurence, A. (2015).
  • For articles in magazines, newsletters, or newspapers, press/media releases, and web pages, include full month and date if available:
    • (2015, December 10).
  • If there is no date of publication, use "n.d." in brackets:
    • Chelsey, N. S., Murray, F., & Laurence, A. (n.d.).

Titles

  • APA style uses italics, sentence case, and mixed case to help readers distinguish between formats:
    • Italics: a style of font in that slants letters to the right:
      • APA Style
    • Sentence case: Capitalize the first word of title and subtitle only, except for proper nouns (names of people, places, or organizations):
      • Rates of addiction among First Nations peoples in British Columbia.
    • Mixed case: Capitalize all long words of title:
      • International Journal of Canadian Studies.
  • Articles and web pages published inside a website or periodical (e.g. journal, newspaper, or magazine):
    • Format with sentence case.
      • Child development policies informed by the theories of Jean Piaget.
      • Treatment of dementia in assisted living facilities: A qualitative study in Turkey.
  • One-time publications such as books, films, and reports:
    • Format with sentence case and italics.
      • Biomedical ethics: A Canadian focus.
      • International Journal of Canadian Studies.
  • Periodicals (e.g. journal, newspaper, or magazine) and websites that publish new content on a regular basis:
    • Format with mixed case.
      • The Globe and Mail.
      • International Journal of Canadian Studies.
  • Unconventional/non-textual sources (e.g. images, podcasts, films, and brochures):
    • Use square brackets to describe the format:
      • Still Alice [Film].
      • Prenatal nutrition guidelines for health professionals [Brochure].
      • Codeine [Digital image].

Location

  • The last part of a reference gives information on how the original source can be found in print or electronic format.
  • Articles/papers with a DOI (Digital object identifier):
    • Use classic DOI style:
      • doi: 10.1093/cs/cdu015
    • Newer style (might not be strictly 6th edition, but often used. Remove special link formatting (e.g., blue) in document.
      • https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cs/cdu015M/
  • Articles/papers with no doi published in periodicals such as journals, magazines, and newspapers:
    • Use retrieval statement with publication URL. Note: Use home/main page URL found through a web search (i.e. Google), NOT library catalog/database URL where you found the article. Also, remove link formatting in the document.
      • Retrieved from http://journal.cpha.ca/
      • Retrieved from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/
  • Reports, documents, and content published on websites available on the open web (i.e. without login or payment):
    • Retrieval statement with web page URL (no URL link formatting).
      • Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-652-x/89-652-x2014005-eng.htm
      • Retrieved from http://autismcanada.org/living-with-autism/autism-through-the-lifespan/
  • eBooks and streaming videos in the library catalogue/databases or content created by or available only in database (e.g. DynaMED, CINAHL Nursing Guide, Canadian Points of View):
    • Retrieval statement with name of database:
      • Retrieved from EBSCOHost eBook Collection database
      • Retrieved from desLibris eBook database
  • Print books:
    • Use city,country:publisher for publishers outside the United States:
      • Frankfurt, Germany: Bertelsmann.
      • Toronto, Canada: Pearson.
    • Use city,state abbreviation:publisher for publishers in the United States:
      • Chicago, IL: Bantam.
      • New York, NY: Mosby.

Volume and Issue Numbers

  • APA style requires volume and/or issue numbers for journal article references. Journal articles usually have BOTH a volume and issue number. Sometimes, they will only have ONE of these numbers.
    • Place volumenumber(issuenumber) after the periodical name. Italicize the volume number.

Reference Templates

Articles

Periodicals like journals and newspapers that are published repeatedly).

JOURNAL ARTICLE WITH DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER (DOI)
  • Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Date of publication). Title of article in sentence case: Capitalize first word of subtitle. Title of Journal in Mixed Case and Italics, volume number in italics(issue number in brackets), first page-last page. doi:10..xxx/yyyyy
  • See http://bowvalleycollege.libguides.com/apa-style/article-doi
JOURNAL ARTICLE WITH NO DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER (DOI)
  • Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Date of publication). Title of article in sentence case: Capitalize first word of subtitle. Title of Journal in Mixed Case and Italics, volume number in italics(issue number in brackets), first page-last page. Retrieved from https://www.journal.com
  • See http://bowvalleycollege.libguides.com/apa-style/article-nodoi
JOURNAL ARTICLE WITH 7 OR LESS AUTHORS
  • Author, A., Author, B., Author, C., Author, D., & Author, E. (Date of publication). Title of article: Capitalize first word of subtitle. Title of Journal in Mixed Case and Italics, volume number in italics(issue number in brackets), first page-last page. doi:10.xxxx/yyyyyyyy
  • See http://bowvalleycollege.libguides.com/c.php?g=494959&p=3386825
JOURNAL ARTICLE WITH 8 OR MORE AUTHORS
  • Author, A., Author, B., Author, C., Author, D., Author, E., Author, F., ... Author, G. (Date of publication). Title of article: Capitalize first word of subtitle. Title of Journal in Mixed Case and Italics, volume number in italics(issue number in brackets), first page-last page. doi:10..xxx/yyyyy
  • See http://bowvalleycollege.libguides.com/c.php?g=494959&p=3386826
JOURNAL ARTICLE IN PRESS (NOT YET PUBLISHED)
MAGAZINE ARTICLE FROM A WEBSITE
MAGAZINE ARTICLE FROM A LIBRARY DATABASE
MAGAZINE/NEWSPAPER ARTICLE (NO AUTHOR) FROM A WEBSITE
NEWSLETTER ARTICLE (NO AUTHOR) FROM A WEBSITE
NEWSPAPER ARTICLE FROM A WEBSITE
NEWSPAPER ARTICLE FROM A LIBRARY DATABASE
PRESS/MEDIA RELEASE ARTICLE OR BROCHURE FROM A WEBSITE
Books, Reports, Documents

Books, reports, and documents are written texts published in full-length (in contrast to periodicals like journals and newspapers that are published repeatedly). Books can be print, electronic (e-books), or reference sources (ex., dictionary or handbook). Reports and documents are usually PDF files in a library database or the websites of organizations (including companies) and government agencies.

CHAPTER, STORY, OR POEM IN A PRINT OR E-BOOK WITH AUTHOR(S) AND EDITOR(S)
  • Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of chapter in sentence case. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book in sentence case and italics (first page-last page of chapter). City, State or Country: Publishing Company.
  • Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of chapter in sentence case. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book in sentence case and italics (first page-last page of chapter). Retrieved from Name database.
  • See http://bowvalleycollege.libguides.com/c.php?g=494959&p=3386833
CHAPTER, STORY, OR POEM IN A PRINT OR E-BOOK WITH AUTHOR(S) AND EDITOR(S)
  • Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of chapter in sentence case. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book in sentence case and italics (first page-last page of chapter). City, State or Country: Publishing Company.
  • Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of chapter in sentence case. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book in sentence case and italics (first page-last page of chapter). Retrieved from Name database.
  • See http://bowvalleycollege.libguides.com/c.php?g=494959&p=3386833
Course Syllabus
  • Name of College, University or Department. (Date of publication). Title of syllabus in sentence case and italics: Capitalize first word of subtitle. Location: Publisher.
  • Name of College, University or Department. (Date of publication). Title of syllabus in sentence case and italics: Capitalize first word of subtitle. Retrieved from http://www.school.ca
  • See http://bowvalleycollege.libguides.com/c.php?g=494959&p=3625360
EBOOK FROM A WEBSITE, CLASSIC OR HISTORICAL WORK (REPUBLISHED)
EBOOK IN A LIBRARY DATABASE
EBOOK FROM A WEBSITE
EBOOK DICTIONARY OR ENCYCLOPEDIA WITH AUTHOR(S) AND EDITOR(S)
ONLINE GOVERNMENT REPORT OR DOCUMENT WITH AUTHOR(S)
ORGANIZATIONAL REPORT OR DOCUMENT WITH AUTHOR(S)
ORGANIZATIONAL OR GOVERNMENT REPORT OR DOCUMENT WITH NO AUTHOR(S)
PRINT BOOK WITH SEVEN OR LESS AUTHOR(S) AND EDITION
  • Author, A. A. & Author, B., & Author, C. (Date of publication). Title of work in sentence case and italics: Capitalize first word of subtitle (Number of edition, if available). City, State or Country: Publishing Company.
  • See http://bowvalleycollege.libguides.com/apa-style/textbook
PRINT BOOK WITH AUTHOR(S) AND EDITOR(S)
  • Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of book in sentence case and italics: Capitalize first word of subtitle (A. Editor & B. Editor, Eds.). Location: Publisher.
  • NOTE: for books with 6 or more editors, list the first editor followed by et al.: e.g. (V.J. Strong-Boag et al., Eds.)
  • See http://bowvalleycollege.libguides.com/c.php?g=494959&p=3386832
PRINT DICTIONARY OR ENCYCLOPEDIA WITH AUTHOR(S) AND EDITOR(S)
  • Author, A. A. (Date of publication). Title of entry/article in sentence case. In A. Editor (Ed.), Title of work in sentence case and italics (edition number if available, page number(s) of entry/article). City, State or Country: Publishing Company.
  • See http://bowvalleycollege.libguides.com/c.php?g=494959&p=3386837
PRINT DICTIONARY OR ENCYCLOPEDIA WITH EDITOR(S)
  • Editor, A. & Editor, B. (Ed. for one editor, Eds. for more than one editor). (Year of publication). Title of work in sentence case and italics: Capitalize first word of subtitle. City, State or Country: Publishing Company.
  • Note: For works with many editors or an editorial board, list the first editor's name followed by et al e.g.: Jones, M. et al. (Eds.).
  • See http://bowvalleycollege.libguides.com/c.php?g=494959&p=3386838
TEXTBOOK WITH EDITOR(S), AUTHOR(S), AND EDITION
  • Note: Some textbooks have different authors for each chapter and multiple editors for the whole book. When using such textbooks in assignments, you must cite and reference each chapter you use following these directions/example:
  • Author A. A., & Author, B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter in sentence-case: Capitalize first word of sentence and subtitle only. In P. A. Potter, A. G. Perry, P. A. Stockert, A. M. Hall, J. C. Ross-Kerr, M. J. Wood, B. J. Astle, & W. Duggleby (Eds.), Book title in sentence case and italics (5th ed., pp. first page of chapter-last page of chapter). Toronto, Canada: Elsevier.
  • See http://bowvalleycollege.libguides.com/apa-style/nursing-textbook
Multimedia (images, videos, powerpoints, etc.)

You must cite and references any form of multimedia you use in assignments (including PowerPoint presentations) such as images found online through search engines, film and television in streaming video (online) or DVD formats, streaming videos posted to YouTube, podcasts, music recordings, and other audio files.

FILM IN DVD OR ONLINE FORMAT
  • Producer, P. P. (Producer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Year of release). Title of film in sentence case and italics [Format]. Country of origin: Studio or Distributor.
  • Producer, P. P. (Producer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Year of release). Title of film in sentence case and italics [Format]. Retrieved from http://website.com
  • Producer, P. P. (Producer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Year of release). Title of film in sentence case and italics [Format]. Retrieved from NameOfDatabase
  • See http://bowvalleycollege.libguides.com/c.php?g=494959&p=3386842
IMAGE OR DIAGRAM IN THE SMART DATABASE
IMAGE WITH PHOTOGRAPHER FROM GOOGLE OR WEBSITE
IMAGE WITH NO PHOTOGRAPHER/ARTICLE AND NO TITLE
HOW TO CITE A PHOTOGRAPH YOU HAVE TAKEN
  • If you are the photographer, cite in-text only. Do not include in the Reference list.
  • Under the photograph, write Figure and a number in italics. For example: Figure 1.
  • Number figures according to the order they appear in the assignment.
  • Include a caption, which is a detailed description under the photograph that explains it meaning and context, such as date, people, and location. For example:
    • Figure 1. School-aged children playing tag in Edworthy Park, a public park in Calgary, Alberta. November 18, 2016.
    • Figure 2. Two 3-year old girls crossing a bridge at Smith Daycare Centre in Calgary, Alberta. June 28, 2016.
  • In your writing, refer to the photograph by figure number. For example:
    • Figure 1 illustrates how tag is a popular game for school-aged children to play in outdoor settings.
    • As demonstrated in Figure 2, young girls often form close friendships in daycare settings.
  • See http://bowvalleycollege.libguides.com/c.php?g=494959&p=3828594
PODCAST OR AUDIO RECORDING ON A WEBSITE
STREAMING VIDEO IN A LIBRARY DATABASE
STREAMING VIDEO ON YOUTUBE WITH NO PRODUCER OR DIRECTOR
STREAMING VIDEO ON YOUTUBE WITH A PRODUCER OR DIRECTOR
EPISODE FROM A TELEVISION SERIES
  • Director, D. D. (Director), & Writer, W. (Writer). (Original air date). Title of episode in sentence case [Format]. In P. Producer (Role/Contribution), Title of television series in sentence case and italics. Country of origin: Broadcasting Network or Distributor.
  • See http://bowvalleycollege.libguides.com/c.php?g=494959&p=3609863
Web Pages and Online Sources
Online Course Learning Materials
  • Referencing sources depends on the type of source and the information your instructor has provided.
    • First, check the type of source (For example, is it an article, a PowerPoint presentation, a short story, or other type of source?):
    • If possible, use the more basic source refence from the materials.
  • See http://bowvalleycollege.libguides.com/apa-style/D2L
DICTIONARY OR ENCYCLOPEDIA ENTRY ON WEBSITE WITH NO AUTHOR OR DATE
ONLINE GOVERNMENT REPORT OR DOCUMENT WITH AUTHOR(S)
ACTS OR STATUTES FROM A WEBSITE
WEBPAGE OR BLOG
WIKI PAGE

Abbreviations and Terms, APA 6th Edition

  • chap. : Chapter.
  • doi: : Document Object Identifier.
  • Ed. : Editor.
  • Eds. : Editors.
  • n.d. : No date.
  • p. : Page.
  • para.: Paragraph.
  • pp. : Pages.

Roles for People

For audiovisual and non-textual sources, an individual's role should often be placed in parentheses or brackets after name(s). Some examples include:

  • (Director)
  • (Producer)
  • (Executive producer)
  • (Artist)
  • (Graphic designer)
  • (Writer)
  • (Photographer)

Unconventional Sources

For unconventional/non-textual sources (e.g. images, podcasts, films, and brochures), use square brackets to describe the format. Some examples include:

  • [Brochure]
  • [Digital image]
  • [Film]
  • [Map]
  • [News release]
  • [Press release]

Multimedia Types

For multimedia types, use square brackets to describe the format. Some examples include:

  • [Audio file]
  • [DVD]
  • [Film clip]
  • [Podcast]
  • [Streaming video]
  • [Video file] (ok for YouTube)

Miscellaneous Rules

Newspapers

Reference Section

Standard Reference Section

  • Start your reference section on a new page with the title "References" at the top.
  • List all references alphabetically.

Annotated Bibliography

Placement of References and other Sections

References for External Sources Used

Many thanks to the following sources from which many of the examples and description came. These resources are highly recommended for anyone looking for additional information.

• Bow Valley College (2018). APA Style, 6th Edition [Web Site]. Calgary, Canada. Retrieved October 20th, 2018 from https://bowvalleycollege.libguides.com/apa-style

• American Psychological Association (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

See Also